1.1 Background of the Study

A library is an organized collection of information sources which is made accessible to the people. The library usually contains the information physically or in a digitized format. In the olden period the access was usually in the library room as the technology grew up the access that was made online (Dinesh, 2015). Library is a fast growing organism. The ancient methods to maintain it are no longer dynamic and efficient. For expeditious retrieval and dissemination of information and better service for the clientele, application of modern techniques has become absolutely indispensable (Neelakandan, 2010).

Libraries can be divided into categories by several types, which are: Academic libraries, Corporate libraries, Government libraries such as national libraries, Historical society libraries, Private libraries, Public libraries, School libraries, Special libraries, Digital libraries, Picture (photograph) libraries, Slide libraries, Tool libraries, Architecture libraries, Fine arts libraries, Medical libraries, Theological libraries etc.

A library is comprised of the following sections, based on the services rendered.

i. Acquisition Section: The books demanded by different departments are done by the Acquisition section. University book center is also working in this section for supply of books to the libraries in this university.

ii. Technical Section: To classify, catalogue, OPAC, Barcode etc. the documents of the

University Library this section is working.

iii. Circulation Section: This section provides documents to the members and users of library for home reading as well as reading in the library. The documents are arranged on the racks in stacks as per the Dewey Decimal Classification Scheme.

iv. Periodical Section: To procure, maintain and arrange periodicals services to library members. Periodical section provides reference service with respect to the requirement of the reader. Reference section is attached to periodical section for convenience of the Library users.

v. Databases: Databases like OPAC, CAB-CD ROM abstracting databases, DELNET online Network Service etc. are available for the library members.

Vi. Reprographic Section: This Section has two automatic plain paper copiers and a duplicating machine through which the services of photocopy are provided to the readers

vii. Binding Section: This section is working for binding work of the damaged books.

Back Volumes and other documents of this Library. The required binding machinery is available in this section.

Library management is a sub-discipline of institutional management that focuses on specific issues faced by libraries and library management professionals. Library management encompasses normal management tasks as well as intellectual freedom, anti-censorship, and fundraising tasks. Issues faced in library management frequently overlap those faced in management of non-profit organizations (Sharma et al., 2005).Library Management System is an application that portraits library system which could be generally small or medium in size. It is used by the librarian to categorically manage the library by the virtue of using a computerized system where he/she can record various transactions like issue of books, return of books, addition of new books, addition of new students etc. (Ashutosh and Ashish, 2011).

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Presently, the department of computer has no internal library, so that they are using university library and in university library the transaction of books in the institutional libraries have been done manually in most cases, thereby taking more time for transaction like borrowing of books or return of books and also searching of member and books. Series of problems occur as a result of this thereby resulting to inefficient library management. In most cases as a result of human error there maybe loss and damages of records due to not using a computerized system in the library.

Nevertheless, the difficulty in the searching of books which could be termed to be inadequacy in book Management is a problem in the manual library thereby causing inefficiency and time consuming in the library. Also the problem of space consuming erupts after the number of records become large the space for physical storage of file and records also increases if no computerized system is implemented as well as the issue of cost. Due to problem of lack of prompt information retrieval and time wastage in using the library. In addition due to the cumbersome, in this project computer approach will be used to solve these problems. Each of the manual procedure will be analyzed.

Books and user maintenance modules are also included in this system which would keep track of the users using the library and also a detailed description about the books a library contains. With this computerized system there will be no loss of book record or member record which generally happens when a non-computerized system is used. In addition, report module is also included in Library Management System. If user’s position is admin, the user is able to generate different kinds of reports like lists of users registered, list of books, issue and return reports. All these modules are able to help librarian to manage the library with more convenience and in a more efficient way as compared to library systems which are not computerized.

1.3 Aim and Objectives

The aim of this project is to develop a system that can handle and manage the activities involved in a library in an efficient and reliable way.

The objectives are:

i. Designing a computerized library management system which would help evacuate the problem faced in manual library.

ii. Implementing the system.

iii. Evaluating and testing the performance of the system.

vi. A search column to search availability of books 

vii. A Request column for librarian for providing new books 

viii. Assist the Liberian to carry out library operations more effectively.

1.4 Purpose of the Project

The main purpose of this project is to develop a computerized system that will manage the activities in the library thereby providing easy access of library usage for librarian and users of the library, it will also help librarians keep track of library information etc. This system will also provide electronic means of storage and help librarians keep track of library information.

1.5 Scope of the Project

The project product to be produced is a Library Management System which will automate the major library operations. The first subsystem is the registration of the Academics and Non-academics staff to the system to keep track of authorized users to the system. The second subsystem is the registration of the users to the system to keep track of authorized users to the system. The third subsystem is the registration of new books into the library management system to know when new books are brought into the library. The Fourth subsystem is the registration of new Project been hold in department into the library management system to know when new Project are brought into the library. The five subsystem is a borrower and return of books which is the major area needed by the user. There are five end users for the Library Management System. The end users are the admin, users and members.


I intend to carry out my research through:

INTERNET: The internet will enable the research to be able to get more information concerning the system or relative system through the use of links.

CONSULATATION: I try as much as possible to see that I consulted the concerned department. Especially the H.O.D.   

1.6 Definition of Terms

Accession Register: A book in which the following information about the book is listed when it is obtained: accession number, title, price and source of supply, date of withdrawal and reason for withdrawal.

Book Card: A card kept in the pocket of a book when the book is on the shelf.

Catalogue: Contain cards with information about each book in the library.

Cataloguing: The description of each book on to cards as it comes into the library.



2.1 Introduction

Library is regarded as the brain of any institutes, of course many institute understand the importance of the library to the growth of the institute and their esteem users which we categorically call the students. An integrated library system, also known as a library management system (Adamson et al., 2008) is an enterprise resource planning system for a library, used to track items owned, orders made, bills paid, and users who have borrowed.

The Library Management System is a Library Management software for monitoring and controlling the transactions in a library (Ashutosh and Ashish, 2012). Library Management

The first library management system to be reviewed is the KOHA library management system. Since the original implementation in 1999, KOHA functionality has been adopted by thousands of libraries worldwide, each adding features and functions, deepening the capability of the system. With the 3.0 release in 2005, and the integration of the powerful Zebra indexing engine, KOHA became a viable, scalable solution for libraries of all kinds. LibLime KOHA is built on this foundation. With its advanced feature set, LibLime KOHA is the most functionally advanced open source Integrated Library System in the market today.

The major setback of this Library Management System is that it is a web based and as a result it is not security conscious because hackers could have the database hacked and access or modify the information of such user. (

The literature review will be about development of library management information system which is organized into the following sections namely Introduction, Features of Library Management, Why we need library management system, A Review of Problems and Challenges of Library Professionals in Developing Countries, Library Management System Initiatives Worldwide (review of library management system).

2.2 Features of library management

 Circulation: Library Management Software enables the complete management of multiple Item issue and return of books.

Provide Multi User environment: Library management software gives facility of multiuser environment. Multiple users can login at the same time in the Library management software.

Auto Filter & Auto Search: On each master form, Library Software will search on the field where your cursor is and what you type is taken as a search value.

2.4 Needs for library management system

i. Improved user services through greater access to accurate information

ii. More economical and safer means of storing and keeping of information

iii. Improved efficiency and effectiveness in administration and management as it has unprecedented access to real- time information.

vi. More reliable security for sensitive and confidential information.

2.5 Library management system initiatives worldwide 

A literature review uses as its database, reports of primary or original scholarship, and does not report new primary scholarship itself. The primary reports used in the literature may be verbal, but in the vast majority of cases reports are written documents. The types of scholarship may be empirical, theoretical, critical/analytic, or methodological in nature. Second a literature review seeks to describe summaries, evaluate, clarify and/or integrate the content of primary reports. (Cooper, 1988).

Computer Application in Library Work” explains the transformation which libraries are forced to undergo due to I.T. and outlines several areas of computer application in libraries and explains the prospects of computer application in library and information centers in India. (Rajagopalan, 1986).

According to Bavakutty, Salih & Haneefa, (2006) in his book “Research on Library computerization” highlights Modern libraries have become more and more aware of the revolutionary impact of developments in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on their major activities. The application of ICT facilitates to provide pinpointed, expeditious and exhaustive information at the right time to the right user. It provides opportunities for libraries and information centers to widen the scope of their resources and services and to increase their significance within the organization they serve. The increasing availability of information in machine readable form allows much information needs to be satisfied with decreased involvement of libraries and librarians. This book have two parts one part is ‘Computerization of University Libraries’ and second part is ‘Application of Information Communication Technology in Libraries’. This book will also be extremely helpful to the students, the researchers and the faculty in library and information science who would like to carry out research studies on library computerization and allied subjects.

An Introduction to Computer based Library Systems; Provide and understanding of what automated systems can do in libraries and has highlighted library housekeeping operations for automation and how librarians can develop their own automated systems in their own libraries. (Kimber, 1968).

According to Koy yeeh keat, (2011) in his research developed a library management system which could be mainly used by member and staff of the library. The system allows members search for books and reserve books through website so that they can save their time and cost to travel from one place to another to use the library as well as know what the book entails in the library. In the system developed, staffs can also be able to add news and also view reports with several criteria as well as add, edit and delete news. The system developed was aimed at allowing users to reserve books via online, to convenient user borrowing books via online, implementing email technologies to the website, implementing SMS technologies to the system, designing a friendly graphical interface which would suit the users. 

In the designing of the system, various modules were considered which are the:

i. Authorization and authentication module

ii. Member/staff module

iii. Search module

iv. Books maintenance module

v. News maintenance module

vi. Email module

vii. Report modules

viii. Publisher maintenance module

ix. Employee maintenance module etc.

According to Adomi and Anie, (2006) in their research on computer literacy skills of professionals in Nigerian University libraries concluded that most of the professionals do not poses high level of computer skill and their use of computer and technology is still maturing. They recommended that library management and leaders should organize and offer in-house computer training programmes for librarians and enough computers should be provided in this regard.

According to Kingery and Tauber (1963) stated that nearly all collections are concerned with computer-produced book cataloguing.

According Marlene Clay and Chris Batt (1992) stated that today it is increasingly difficult to find libraries which do not use computers in some shape or form. Better questions are “what benefits should one expect to gain and where should it stop”.

Noted that computer based acquisition procedures which have been developed at the library provide more effective control over fund accounting and maintenance of an outstanding order file. The system illustrates an economical, yet flexible approach to automated acquisitions procedures in an academic library, Robert (1973).

In Nepal, Siwakoti, (2008) found that there was no government agency to control, monitorand evaluate the school libraries activities. There was lack of awareness programs, budgetary constraints, inadequate space, inadequate library materials, lack of trained and skilled manpower and lack of appropriate government policy and lack of information literacy.

Ademodi and Adepoju, (2009) investigated the computer skill among librarians in academic libraries on Ondo and Ekiti State in Nigeria. It was found the shortage of computers and computer skills among professionals. The study recommended that more attention and funds should be provided for training and procurement of ICT infrastructure in Nigerian University libraries. For computerization purpose, library administration should solicit funds and assistant from foreign agencies and foundations who are interested for the cause.

According to Kilgore (1972) stated that computer possesses the potentials for enabling big libraries to recapture human qualities of which classical Librarian ship has deprived them since their days as one-Librarian libraries.” With a series of specific illustrations, Kilgore described how libraries would use computers to improve those present service that are seriously breaking down, to provide personalized bibliographies, and event to lower costs, an event he said that would occur when entire procedures are automated.




3.1 Introduction

To develop a best fit system to the library, there are three stages of developing the new system. They are gather information, design and implementation and final testing. Within these three sections, different tactics will be adopted so that we can design a system that can maintain high usability and accessibility. 

3.2 Information Gathering?

Before setting up the system by software development tools, information will be gathered from the staff about the need for the users of the system like the staff of library and those readers by using qualitative gathering techniques (oral interviews). Before starting to implement the system, interviews will be made to get readers view on the system before having the design works being done.

After considering the scope and the objectives of this study, it is very much ideal to use the qualitative gathering techniques method i.e. the survey method, using the oral interview. Interviews would be done to investigate and identify the scenario that libraries were going through in embarking on automation projects having embraced library automation.(TOSIN, 2015) The library is a major means of data gathering and as well a case study for the proposed system. In line with this the major method of information gathering for the system is the library and observation method via observing the staff and operation of the library.

3.3 Analysis of Existing System

The existing system of library management system involves lots and lots of paper work. The system involves that all library user details will be taken on a white and black method. To borrow book from a library a borrower information is being taken for every registered user and can actually sign out for return of the book once he/she is completed.

3.3.1 Description of Proposed system

The library management system is a WEB based application system used by an administrator (Librarian) as an alternative means of record keeping of the books stored in the library. It has the following features.

i. The administrator registers the applicant (staff or student) with their SP number, OR

Admission number. And other details are to be complete by the staff or student like username is being suggested by the user alongside a login password which is to be used for log in by the registered user

ii. An applicant is allowed to log into the system with his name and generated password which is given at the point of registration.

iii. The administrator goes into the report to view the details of a particular user.

3.4 Design and Implementation Methodology

The design methodology used in the proposed system is parallel as a result of the fact that parallel methods support the use of the proposed system side by side with the existing system in order to test for the system efficiency. Top down approach is used as well in the design because it allows the analysis of the system to be carried out one after the other. In this stage, the first goal will be decided by task analysis. Next, the prototype of the system will be analyzed. Then test will be made on its usability and design with some design theories. Thus the prototype will be correspondingly looked at. Then a more complete prototype will be tested by potential users to collect feedbacks. Finally, the system will be finalized with the amendment on some problems of the user interface.

3.4.1 Software Requirements

i. Operating system- Windows 8.1 is used as the operating system as it is stable and supports more features and is more user friendly

ii. Database MYSQL-MYSQL is used as database as it easy to maintain and retrieve records by simple queries which are in English language which are easy to understand and easy to write.

Development tools and Programming language- HTML is used to write the whole code and develop webpages with cascading style sheet, java script for styling work and hypertext pre-processor (PHP) for sever side scripting.

3.4.2 Software tools used

The whole Project is divided in two parts the front end and the back end.

FRONT END: The front end is designed using of HTML, PHP, CSS, Java script

i. HTML- HTML or Hyper Text Mark-up Language is the main mark-up language for creating web pages and other information that can be displayed in a web browser.HTML is written in the form of HTML elements consisting of tags enclosed in angle brackets (like <html>), within the web page content. The purpose of a web browser is to read HTML documents and compose them into visible or audible web pages. It provides a means to create structured documents by denoting structural semantics for text such as headings, paragraphs, lists, links, quotes and other items. It can embed scripts written in languages such as JavaScript which affect the behavior of HTML web pages.

ii. CSS- Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the look and formatting of a document written in a mark-up language. While most often used to style web pages and interfaces written in HTML and XHTML, the language can be applied to any kind of XML document, including plain XML, SVG and XUL. CSS is a cornerstone specification of the web and almost all web pages use CSS style sheets to describe their presentation.CSS is designed primarily to enable the separation of document content from document presentation, including elements such as the layout, colours, and fonts. This separation can improve content accessibility, provide more flexibility and control in the specification of presentation characteristics, enable multiple pages to share formatting, and reduce complexity and repetition in the structural content (such as by allowing for table less web design).CSS can also allow the same mark-up page to be presented in different styles for different rendering methods, such as on-screen, in print, by voice (when read out by a speech-based browser or screen reader) and on Braille-based, tactile devices. It can also be used to allow the web page to display differently depending on the screen size or device on which it is being viewed.

iii. JAVA SCRIPT- JavaScript (JS) is a dynamic computer programming language. It is most commonly used as part of web browsers, whose implementations allow client side scripts to interact with the user, control the browser, communicate asynchronously, and alter the document content that is displayed. It is also being used in server-side programming, game development and the creation of desktop and mobile applications. JavaScript is a prototype-based scripting language with dynamic typing and has first- class functions. Its syntax was influenced by C. JavaScript copies many names and naming conventions from Java, but the two languages are otherwise unrelated and have very different semantics. The key design principles within JavaScript are taken from the self and Scheme programming languages. It is a multiparadigm language, supporting object-oriented, imperative, and functional programming styles.

iv. PHP- PHP is a server-side scripting language designed for web development but also used as a general-purpose programming language. PHP is now installed on more than 244 million websites and 2.1 million web servers. Originally created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1995, the reference implementation of PHP is now produced by The PHP Group. While PHP originally stood for Personal Home Page, it now stands for PHP: Hypertext Pre-processor, a recursive backronym.PHP code is interpreted by a web server with a PHP processor module, which generates the resulting web page: PHP commands can be embedded directly into an HTML source document rather than calling an external file to process data. It has also evolved to include a command-line interface capability and can be used in standalone graphical applications. PHP is free software released under the PHP License. PHP can be deployed on most web servers and also as a standalone shell on almost every operating system and platform, free of charge.

BACK END- The back end is designed using MySQL which is used to design the databases

i. MYSQL- MySQL (“My S-Q-L”, officially, but also called “My Sequel”) is (as of July 2013) the world’s second most widely used open-source relational database management system (RDBMS). It is named after co-founder Michael Widenius daughter, My. The SQL phrase stands for Structured Query Language. The MySQL development project has made its source code available under the terms of the GNU General Public License, as well as under a variety of proprietary agreements. MySQL was owned and sponsored by a single for- profit firm, the Swedish company MySQL AB, now owned by Oracle Corporation .MySQL is a popular choice of database for use in web applications, and is a central component of the widely used LAMP open source web application software stack (and other ‘AMP’ stacks). LAMP is an acronym for “Linux, Apache, MySQL, Perl/PHP/Python.” Free-software-open source projects that require a full-featured database management system often use MySQL. For commercial use, several paid editions are available, and offer additional functionality. Applications which use MySQL databases include: TYPO3, MODx, Joomla, WordPress, phpBB, MyBB, Drupal and other software. MySQL is also used in many high-profile, large-scale websites, including Wikipedia, Google (though not for searches), Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, and YouTube.

3.4.3 Hardware Requirements

i. Intel core i5 2nd generation is used as a processor because it is fast than other processors and it is very reliable and we can as well run our pc for long time with the Intel core i5. By using this processor we can keep on developing our project without any worries.

ii. Ram 2 GB is used as it will provide fast reading and writing capabilities and will in turn support in processing.

3.5 System Development Approach

System development life cycle is referred to a methodology for developing systems. It produces a consistent frame work of tasks and deliverables needed to develop systems. The SDLC methodology may be condensed to include automated or manual, whether it is a new system, or an enhancement to existing system. The SDLC methodology tracks a project from an idea developed by the user through feasibility study, systems analysis and design, programming, pilot testing, implementation and post implementation analysis, The development methods that intend to use for the library management system is the V-model which may be considered as an extension of the waterfall model, it offers a mean of making the development process more visible. A system prototype can be developed to give end-user a concrete impression on the system capabilities. System life cycle is an organizational process of developing and maintaining systems, its helps in establishing a system project plans because it gives overall list of process and sub processes required developing a system.

System development life cycle means combination of various activities. In other words various activities put together are referred to as system development life cycle. In the system analysis and design terminology system development life cycle is known to be software development life cycle, the following are the different phases of software development life cycle. Software concept, Requirement analysis, Architectural design, Coding and debugging, System testing, Implementation, Maintenance.

3.5.1 V – MODEL

Figure 3.1: V-model

The V model represents a software development process (also applicable to hardware development) which may be considered an extension of the waterfall model. Instead of moving down in a linear way, the process steps are bent upwards after the coding phase, to form the typical V shape. The V-Model demonstrates the relationships between each phase of the development life cycle and its associated phase of testing. The horizontal and vertical axes represents time or project completeness (left-to-right) and level of abstraction (coarsestgrain abstraction uppermost), respectively.(TOSIN, 2015)

3.5.2 Requirement analysis and system design

The requirements of the system are collected by analyzing the needs of the user(s). This phase is concerned with establishing what the ideal system has to perform. However it does not determine how the software will be designed or built. Usually, the users are interviewed and a document called the user requirements document is generated. (Fail, 2007)

The user requirements document will typically describe the system’s functional, interface, performance, data, security, etc. requirements as expected by the user. It is used by business analysts to communicate their understanding of the system to the users. The users carefully review this document as this document would serve as the guideline for the system designers in the system design phase. The user acceptance tests are designed in this phase. There are different methods for gathering requirements of both soft and hard methodologies including; interviews, questionnaires, document analysis, observation, throw-away prototypes, use cases and static and dynamic views with users. The requirement documentation will be referred throughout the rest of the system development process to ensure the developing project along with the need and requirements. 

Systems design is the phase where system engineers analyze and understand the business of the proposed system by studying the user requirements document. They figure out possibilities and techniques by which the user requirements can be implemented. If any of the requirements are not feasible, the user is informed of the issue. A resolution is found and the user requirement document is edited accordingly. The software specification document which serves as a blueprint for the development phase is generated. This document contains the general system organization, menu structures, data structures etc. It may also hold example business scenarios, sample windows, reports for the better understanding. Other technical documentation like entity diagrams, data dictionary will also be produced in this phase.

 The documents for system testing are prepared.

3.5.3 Architectural design

The phase of the design of computer architecture and software architecture can also be referred to as high-level design. The baseline in selecting the architecture is that it should realize all which typically consists of the list of modules, brief functionality of each module, their interface relationships, dependencies, database tables, architecture diagrams, technology details etc. The integration testing design is carried out in the particular phase. After the requirements have been determined the necessary specifications for the hardware, software and people and data resources and the information products that will satisfy the functional requirement of the proposed system can be determined. The design will serve as a blueprint for the system before these errors or problems are built into the system.

3.5.4 Module design

The module design phase can also be referred to as low-level design. The designed system is broken up into smaller units or modules and each of them is explained so that the programmer can start coding directly. The low level design document or program specifications will contain a detailed functional logic of the module in pseudo code:

i. Database tables, with all elements, including their type and size.

ii. All interface details with complete API references.

iii. All dependency issues.

iv. Error message listings.

v. Complete input and outputs for a module.

The unit test design is developed in this stage.

3.5.5 Validation phases

In the V-model, each stage of verification phase has a corresponding stage in the validation phase. (De spautz, 2008) The following are the typical phases of validation in the V Model, though they may be known by other names.

i. Unit testing In the V-Model, Unit Test Plans (UTPs) are developed during module design phase. These UTPs are executed to eliminate bugs at code level or unit level. A unit is the smallest entity which can independently exist, e.g. a program module. Unit testing verifies that the smallest entity can function correctly when isolated from the rest of the codes/units.

ii. Integration testing

Integration Test Plans are developed during the Architectural Design Phase. These tests verify that units created and tested independently can coexist and communicate among themselves. Test results are shared with customer’s team.

iii. System testing

System Tests Plans are developed during System Design Phase. Unlike Unit and Integration

Test Plans, System Test Plans are composed by client’s business team. System Test ensures that expectations from application developed are met. The whole application is tested for its functionality, interdependency and communication. System Testing verifies that functional and non-functional requirements have been met. Load and performance testing, stress testing, regression testing, etc. are subsets of system testing.

iv. User acceptance testing

User Acceptance Test (UAT) Plans are developed during the Requirements Analysis phase. Test Plans are composed by business users. User Acceptance Testing is performed in a user environment that resembles the production environment, using realistic data. User Acceptance Testing verifies that delivered system meets user’s requirement and system is ready for use in real time.

3.6 Data flow diagrams

Figure 3.3: Context diagram.


3.6.1 System login

After entering to the home page of the website, user can enter username and password, and if he/she is a valid user then a user home page will be displayed.

Figure 3.4: Dataflow diagram for user login

3.6.2 Book borrow

After entering to the home page of the Admin, where he entering the book detail, he/she details and if the maximum no of books issued limit is not crossed then a request will be sent to the Database. 

Figure 3.4: Dataflow diagram for book borrow


3.6.3 Book search and Project search

After the home page login there will be an option of the book search or library search where after entering book detail like author name, publication, book name etc. book details will be displayed or after entering project detail like writer name, year, and project name etc. project details will be displayed.

Figure 3.6: Dataflow diagram for user login

3.6.4Account creation

The librarian who will enter the student admission, staff SP number for the approve the user as registered member of the library. After librarian approve the user then the user go to pre-register page where the user enter his/her admission number or SP number to complete the registration for CREATING AN ACCOUNT.

Figure 3.7: Dataflow diagram for account creation


3.7 Final Testing

When the product is finalized, it will be run on a real world environment and test on its performance. If the performance is satisfactory, it will be applied, else amendment will be made to correct the problems. After the system has been run for daily operation, continued maintenance and administration should be carried out to handle any system errors and security issues. This will entail the pre-test, validity test, pilot and reliability test and the data survey.




4.1 Implementation of the System

This describes how the system works and how best computers together with other resources may be applied to perform data storage, management and retrieval for decision making. Then requirement of this research work demand a web programming language.

4.2 Hardware Support

The hardware that is required in the successful completion of this project include;

i. A random access memory (RAM) of 512 MB.

ii. Enhanced Keyboard.

iii. V.G.A or a coloured monitor.

vi. A 2.0 GB hard disk.

4.3 Software Support

The software support for the design of the proposed system involves:

i. A windows 8.1 operating system.

ii. Snipping tools.

iii. XAMPP server.

iv. My SQL database.

v. An internet access as well as an anti-virus software which prevents the system from being infected by virus.

4.4 Documentation of the System

4.4.1 Program Documentation

In order for the proposed system to be used on any computer system it takes the following ways:

i. Boot the system.

ii. Install the XAMPS server.

iii. Turn server on (Active).

iv. Copy the folder to htdoc folder of the drive C: after XAMPP server is installed on the system.

v. Open any browser on the system (Microsoft internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Netscape Navigator, Opera, Flock, Safari etc.)

vi. Type http://localhost/library/index.php on the address bar and press the return key or enter key.

4.4.2 Procedure Design

This refers to the step by step method of using the proposed system. The proposed system comprises of Administrator and the general user environment. The steps to use the proposed system are as follows:

i. On the address bar of any browser type http://localhost/library/index.php

ii. You are prompted to supply the username and password this verifies that you are a registered user and has the privileged to use the library system otherwise you cannot access the library

iii. If the username and password supplied are correct as that of a user you are prompted with the home page with the list of available document which you can borrow or return based on choice.

iv. The username and password are in two formats as an administrator as well as a user.

4.4.3 Operating the system

The system developed requires the user to be trained by the programmer, this will enable the user to be familiar with the modules contained in the program and the function of each modules in the system are expected to be explained in details by the programmer. Before running the program, the application discussed above has to be installed on the personal computer (PC) and launched by the user.

4.5 Output design and Input design

The output to be extracted from the proposed system are as shown below.

4.5.1 Home Page

This is the first interface of the library management system, it provides the basic page where user and admin can click on to access the library system.

The home, about, admin user and sections are entailed in this page. Both the admin and the users of the library can access the home page of the library as it has been authorized and authenticated for use.

Figure 4.1: screenshot for homepage

4.5.2 Admin/User Login

For the admin login, the admin can log in with his /her own username and password while for the user login, a given user must have to be registered before getting the access to have the username and password to use the library.

Figure 4.2: screenshot for admin/user login


4.5.3 Add Books

Here, only the admin have the authorized access to add a particular book to the library shelf.

The user have no access to this. The library admin more like the librarian can add new books to the library as much as possible for the user to borrow and use.

Figure 4.3: screenshot for add books

4.5.4 Add User

Here the admin can add a new user of the library, by registering the user i.e (Student, lecturers and non-lecturers) by entering his/her SP number or Admission.

Figure 4.4: screenshot for add user (staff)


4.5.5 User register

Here the user can add his/he Sp/Admision number in a pre-register and take him/her to the registration page where the user well inter his/her complete details  such as the user name, required password, matriculation number, department, level and e.t.c are required by the User  from the user to get registered as a library user.

After being added as a user, the user can then have his/her login such as the username and password so as to get access to the library system.

Figure 4.4: screenshot for pre-register

Figure 4.4: screenshot for register


4.5.6 Book Borrow

Here the user of the library after being registered can borrow a particular book in the library. A user of the library is restricted to borrowing only three books at a time. 

Figure 4.5: Screenshot for book borrow.

4.6 Database Design

This refers to the tables used in the proposed system. The database design for the proposed system is as shown below.

4.6.1 Lecturers Table

The user table entails the user id, username, password, first name, last name, SP number, department and Position.

Figure 4.6: screenshot for Lecturers table.


4.6.2 Student Table

The user table entails the user id, username, password, first name, last name, matriculation number, department, level and so on.

Figure 4.6: screenshot for Student table.

4.6.3 Borrow Details table

Figure 4.7: screenshot for borrow details


4.6.4 Book table

Figure 4.8: screenshot for book table.

4.6.5 Project table

Figure 4.8: screenshot for Project table.




5.1 Summary

The quest to make life easier and processing faster has led to computerization of various processes. Computer technology has transformed so many sectors especially the Educational sector in no small measure. In an effort to foster technology driven education, a Library Management System has been developed to manage all library operations such as borrowing, returning of books etc.

5.2 Conclusion

In conclusion, from proper analysis and assessment of the designed system it can be safely concluded that the system is an efficient, usable and reliable Library Management System. It is working properly and adequately meets the minimum expectations that were for it initially.

The new system is expected to give benefits to the users and staff in terms of efficiency in the usage of library system

5.3 Recommendation 

Having implemented, tested and observed that the software application provide a great deal of improvement over the existing manual library system. We therefore, confidently recommend it to any academic institutions, organizations or establishments that require an effective and efficient academic library system

   We strongly recommend a parallel change over implementation approach which involves the operation of both the manual system and the new system simultaneously for some period of time to monitor the reliability of the new system before a direct changeover will be applied.

     Finally, for proper implementation and usage of this software package, proper attention must be given to the following areas;

Staff Training; training and retraining of staff is important in order to keep them abreast with global conventions.  

System evaluation; This enable one to know how the system is working and how well it is meeting the original requirements, goals, specification, schedule and so on. From such evaluation comes adjustment that will improve the system.

5.4 Future Work

The library should be developed to support audio, video and a diagrammatic aid to learning.

University library should be developed to support project search with aim of downloading the project

University library should be developed to support News Section in which library user can login and read news of the world.

University library should be developed by providing two category of admin, the main admin (librarian) that manage the whole system and admin(staff) that manage the section of issue and return of library books.



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<?php  session_start(); ?>

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<html xmlns=””>


    <link href=”css/Layout.css” rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” />

    <link href=”css/Style.css” rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” />

    <link href=”css/header.css” rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” />

    <link href=”css/Sidebar.css” rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” />

    <link href=”css/input.css” rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” />

    <script src=”js/jquery-1.11.1.js” type=”text/javascript”></script>

    <script src=”js/slider/jquery.custom-slider.js” type=”text/javascript”></script>

    <link href=”js/slider/custom-slider.css” rel=”stylesheet” type=”text/css” />

    <script src=”js/script.js” type=”text/javascript”></script>


var myVar=setInterval(function(){myTimer()},1000);

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var d=new Date();

var t=d.toLocaleTimeString();






    <div class=”wrapper”>

        <div class=”container”>

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                            <li class=”current”><a href=”index.php”>Home</a></li>

                            <li><a href=”about.php”>About</a></li>

                            <li><a href=”preregstd.php”>Student Register</a></li>

                            <li><a href=”preregstaff.php”>Staff Register</a></li>

                            <li><a href=”contacts.php”>Contacts</a></li>

                             <li><a href=”faqs.php”>FAQs</a></li>


                    <p><?php echo “Date: ” . date(“Y/m/d”) . “&nbsp;”; ?><span id=”demo” class=”right”></span><span class=”right”>Time:&nbsp;</span></p>



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                        <li>  <img src=”images/slider/gate.png” alt=”KSUSTA Gate ” /> </li>

                        <li><img src=”images/slider/addmin.png” alt=”Administration Block”/></li>

                        <li><img src=”images/slider/library.png” alt=”labrary” /></li>

                        <li><img src=”images/slider/hold.png” alt=”Science Lecture Theater”/></li>

                        <li><img src=”images/slider/way.png”  alt=”Way To KSUSTA” /> </li>


          <div class=”space”>


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                        <h5 class=”panel-title”> WELCOME TO KSUSTA</h5>

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                                             <p> I welcome you  to Kebbi State University of Science and Technology,Aliero(KSUSTA). I congratulate you for selecting KSUSTA. In doing so, you have become part of a tradition of excellence that is placing KSUSTA in the spotlight locality , regionally, nationally and internationally. In fact, since it establishment in 2006, KSUSTA has continued to grow as a center for teaching, learning and research in Science and technology, and related disciplines. </p>





                <div class=”g-3″>

                    <div class=”widget alone”>

                        <h5 class=”widget-title”>


                        <div class=”widget-inner login”>

                        <form action=”login.php” method=”post”>

                            <div class=”login-field”>

                                <label for=”username”>


                                <input type=”text” id=”username” name=”name”required />


                            <div class=”login-field”>

                                <label for=”password”>


                                <input type=”password” id=”password” name=”pass” required />


                            <div class=”login-field”>

                                <a href=”forgotpassword.php”>Forgot Password</a>


                            <div class=”login-field”>

                                <input type=”submit” value=”Sign in” name=”login”/>


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                                Don’t have an Account? <a href=”preregstd.php”>Register</a>


                            <p style=”color: #f00″><?php echo $_SESSION[‘error’] ?></p>





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                <span class=”copyright”>Copyright &copy;2018 KSUSTA, All Right Reserved.</span> <span

                    class=”by right”>Developed by <b>Akibu Bello</b></span>







<?php session_start();




    Global $errormsg ;


$password = ($_POST[‘pass’]);

$username = ($_POST[‘name’]);

$sql = “select * from staff where username = ‘$username’ and password = ‘$password'”;

             $quire=mysql_query($sql, $conn);

$row =  mysql_fetch_assoc($quire);

$dbuser= $row[‘username’];

$dbpass= $row[‘password’];

$dbadm= $row[‘SP_no’];

$dbtype= $row[‘type’];

if($dbuser== $username and $dbpass== $password){

if(“Academin”== $dbtype){ $_SESSION[‘username’] =$_POST[‘name’];

$_SESSION[‘adm’] =$dbadm;

echo “<script>‘stf.php’,’_self’)</script>”;


$_SESSION[‘username’] =$_POST[‘name’];

$_SESSION[‘adm’] =$dbadm;

$_SESSION[‘type’] =$dbtype;

echo “<script>‘stdnon.php’,’_self’)</script>”;



$sql = “select * from student where username = ‘$username’ and password = ‘$password'”;

            $quire=mysql_query($sql, $conn);

$row =  mysql_fetch_assoc($quire);

$dbuser= $row[‘username’];

$dbpass= $row[‘password’];

$dbadm= $row[‘id_no’];

if($dbuser== $username and $dbpass== $password){

$_SESSION[‘username’] =$dbuser;

$_SESSION[‘adm’] =$dbadm;

echo “<script>‘std.php’,’_self’)</script>”;


$sql = “select * from login where username = ‘$username’ and password = ‘$password'”;

            $quire=mysql_query($sql, $conn);

$row =  mysql_fetch_assoc($quire);

$dbuser= $row[‘username’];

$dbpass= $row[‘password’];

$dbadm= $row[‘id_no’];

if($dbuser== $username and $dbpass== $password){

$_SESSION[‘username’] =$dbuser;

$_SESSION[‘adm’] =$dbadm;

echo “<script>‘adm.php’,’_self’)</script>”; }else{

$_SESSION[‘error’]=”invalid password or username”;

echo “<script>‘index.php’,’_self’)</script>”;


} }





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