BRIEF HISTORY OF GOBIR KINGDOM
The History of Gobirawa (the peoople of Gobir)has been one of the most famous and influential in Africa. They magrated from the east in 1000AD and have descent from Nomadic Copts or kibdawa in Arebia. Their record shows a migration from gobir in Yemen, North of Mecca. During the time of Prophet Muhammad (SAW), Gobirwa, under their king Bana Turmi, were said to help the prophet in the Battle of badrin 624AD. At the end of the wars half of them stayed in egypt under Dangaladima, while the other half continued their migaration westwards through Khartoun and Borno. They became masters of Asben at Goran Rami and stayed in Magala for 200 years.
Later they were attracted by the riches of Balma in the deserts of present Niger Republic where they spent anther 200 years. it was duringthis period their prince Dagazau founded the present tawn of Birnin Konni. they also stayed in Baranda and later moved to Birnin lalle where they spent another 2000 year.At Birnin lalle, they had difficulty in choosing their leader, but finally on choosing Dala as their King, they were drive southhwords by the Tuaregs and Dala led them to camp at a place called Dutsen Zana. Dala was succeeded by Bashirin Darwai who faunded the tawn of kunya and Gidan Runji both in Niger Ripublic now.
In the reign of Muhammadu Tsaida Rana, the Gobirawa entered wars with Katsinawa and forced them to abandon their city Katsina to found anew place maradi. The Gobirawa further moved South conquering their neighbours and expanding their move they camped near Zaria, here they founded the town of Soba, and Sobi on the banks of Niger in Nupe land. Soba and his army stayed in Yoruba land for the next ten years.
Under Sule Dangaladima, some Gobirawa stayed and inter-married with the Yoruba People and established themselves there. The mame “Gamba” by the Yorubas is a polluted way of saying “Gobir” being that Gobir man was the first Hausa man to have cotact with the Yoruba. Today the title of Dangaladima is thesecond highest traditional title in Ilorin.
After they come back from Yoruba land in the early 16th century, Gobirawa were led by Sarkin Gobir Ibrahim Babari to found their new capital at Alkalawa after building its walls, that Gobirawa were able to settle and consolidated their kindom. They have been on the move throughout 1000 years since the battle of badr.
Gobirawa were first attacked in theirnew capital by the Tuaregs, but they drove their enemies away at the battle of Dangude. Ibrahim Babari expanded the kingdom by threaaning and sacking Birnin Zamfara, capital of Zamfara. These wars lasted for 15 years. Although they suffered some defeats in some few wars Gobirawas gave Gobir the control of the whole territory between Katsina on the East and Kabbi in the West.to the south the Frontier were pushed up to Bakura and the remnants of Zamfara.
It was this Ibrahim Babari who gave birth to Bawa Jan Gwarzo, the spiritual leader of Gobirawa who become one of the most famous kings in not only the History of Gobir but also Africa. It was during Bawa’s reign that Gobir reached its peak. Because of their warlike nature, Gobirawa undoubtedly waged wars with Katsina, Kabbi, Nupe e.t.c.
This period of pre-eminence lasted for about 50 years, until their capital Alkalawa under king Yunfa was sacked in 1808 by the Fulani Jihad forces under Shehu Usman Danfodio. Most of the gobirawa resisted Fulani occupation and majority of them moved after the Fulani sack of Alkalawa to found a new capital Tsibiri now in Niger Republic. In about 1864 some of them under Sarkin Gobir Danhalima came back near the ruins of Sabon-Birni is a Branch of the original ruling family of Gobirawa.
Many attempts were made by the Fulani like Sultan Atiku and other successive Sultans of Sokoto to occupy the whole of Gobir after their earlier success on them, but those attempts were strongly resisted. With the occupation of Sokoto Caliphate by the British in 1903, Sabon-Birnin-Gobir was placed underSokoto as a districj. However, some of the Gobirawa are now accupying the Southern and Eastern parts of French territory of Niger Republic. Since Colonisation, Gobir District has witnessed peaseful co-existence with their negibhours. The present Sarkin Gobir Muhammadu Bawa is the 768th on the leneage of Gobir kings since Bana Turmi. the title of Sarkin Gobir today is not only held byGobirawa of Sabon Birni, but also theFulani rulers of Isa an Gwadabawa being that Gobirawa were once the ruler of those territories. Gobirawa have been very famous in their days. Wars have became part of their culture and today they are simply idemtified through the facial markings of 6 and 7 on their cheeks. This facial markings could have originated from Egypt where it could be seen under eye of Kings of Egypt
Sources: Esan blog