ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVESA SEMINAR PRESENTATION
Moringa which is popularly known as” Zogale” among Hausa speaking people is a plant which can cure countless diseases. Significantly, it arrests ageing, produces a more memory, and is capable of curing 300 diseases. The common names of the moringa oleifera include horseradish tree, radish tree, drumstick, west India Ben, and Benzoline in French. Back home the tree is known as zogale in Hausa, Gawara in Fulfude. Okwe oyibo in Igbo, and Ewe igbale in the Yoruba language (Abdulkarim, 2005). Typically, Moringa can be regarded as a WAZOBIA tree at the local level, since it is found in every part of the country and beyond. Moringa has a very long time been identified by some traditional herbalist to cure many disease, and even used as food an nutrition supplement, but is only of recent that modern scientist began to reap out its benefits. Out of the several researches they have conducted they found many to have medicinal, nutritional as well as raw material values. Early researches confirmed that the leaves and pods of moringa tree have great nutritional value, and yield many vitamins and mineral ( Fahey, 2005).The Moringa is a multi-purpose tree with a variety of potential uses. It is regarded by some people A miracle plant. Its leaves pods, seeds, flower, roots are edible and have different nutritional and medicinal values. Edible oil also be extracted from the seeds, because it yield 38-40 percent of non- drying oil known as Ben oil. (Gombe, 2009).HISTORYAlthough the name “Shigon” for Moringa oleifera is mentioned in the “Shushruta Sanhita” which was written in the beginning of the first century A.D., there is evidence that the cultivation of this tree in India dates back many thousands of years. The Indians knew that the seeds contain edible oil and they used them for medicinal purpose (Abdulkarim, 2005). It is probable that the common people also knew of its value as a fodder or vegetable. This tree can be found growing naturally at elevation of up 1,000m above sea level. It can grow well on hillside but is more frequently found growing on pastureland or in river basins. It is a fast growing tree and has been found to grow to 6-7 m in one year in areas receiving less than 400 mm mean annual rainfall (Odee, 1998).M. oleifera was cultivated as single trees in homesteads, round cattle sheds, on farm boundaries, and as isolated plants in fences and as groups of trees on village waste lands
Free project: PHYTOCHEMICAL AND NUTRITIONAL CONSTITUENT OF Cnidosculus aconitflius LEAVES COLLECTED IN BIRNIN KEBBI, KEBBI STATE
Free student project: Investigates of the under groundwater potential of SRRBDA Zamfara State Talata mafara using the self potential values (sp)
Studies from around the world illustrate how wild resources often form an integral part of livelihood ( Scones et all., 1992). Wild resources provide materials for utensils and construction, and contribute to improved diets and health, food security, income generation, and genetic experimentation. These resources are typically associated with hunting and gathering societies where they often have special cultural significance, but they also play important roles more intensive or specialized agricultural systems ( Akhtar, 2006). The socio- economic value of biological diversity resides not only in the direct use that one makes of biological resources, but also in the indirect uses, such as the ecological services (e.g.: improvement of the quality of water and air , the fixing of nitrogen, the formation of soils), socio- cultural uses (e.g.: tourism of vision), etc. These uses end up at the level of feeding and the different sectors of activity that are interested in biological diversity (Duke, 1983). The Moringa tree is a multi- function plant it has been cultivated in tropical regions all over the world for the following characteristics:High protein, vitamins, mineral and carbohydrate content of entire plants; high value of nutrition for both humans and livestock; High oil content (42%) of the seed which is edible, and with medicinal uses;The coagulant of seeds could be used for waste water treatment ( Foidl et al., 2001). This plant has been well documented for its medicinal importance for a long time. The Moringa oleifera, medicinal and socio- economic uses.Stem bark, root bark, fruit, flowers, leaves, seeds and gum are widely used in India folk medicine. The ground powders of seeds and roots are also a spice, and it is where the origin of the name horseradish tree comes from. The pods and seeds are testier while they are young and before they turn brown. In Malaysia, the young tender pods are cut into small pieces and added to curries (Abdulkarim et al., 2005).Figure 7: Uses of different part of M.oleiferaVegetable part All of the parts of the M.oleifera can be used nutrients and vitamins and is good as food for Moringa seeds help to clean dirty water and is provides lots of leafy material that is useful variety of ways as food. It is full of and as well as fodder for animals. Useful source of medicine. The tree using alley cropping systems. The leaves, especially young shoots, are eaten as greens. In salads, in vegetable curries, and as pickles. In India, moringa extracts are commonly used as a phytotherapeutic agent. The leaves can be eaten fresh, cooked, or stored as dried powder for many months without refrigeration, and reportedly without loss of nutritional value. The leaves Moringa oleifera. Medicinal and socio- Economic uses are widely used, particularly in India, the Philippines, Hawaii and part of Africa, as a highly nutritious vegetable supplement. The leaves are rich in starch, minerals, iron, Vitamins A, B and C, calcium and protein. The leaves are considered to offer great potential for those who are nutritionally at risk and may be regarded as a protein and calcium supplement. It is particularly useful as a human food in tropical countries because the leaves appear towards the end of the dry season when few other sources of green leafy vegetables are available. The powder of dried leaves can be produced by drying the leaves and crushing or pounding them. This powder can then be added to sauces at the same time as other condiments or vegetables are added ( Odee, 1998).Figure 8: Nutritional value of Moringa leaves.Table 1: mineral contents of M. Oleifera leaves from different agro climatic origins (Becker and Makkar in Foidl et al. 2001).The root is applied externally as a poultice in cases of inflammation, as a valuable rubefacient. It is also used as a substitute for horseradish. The effect of oral application of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of M. oleifera’ cot- wood has been studied in make wistor albino rats. Ethylene glycol feeding resulted in hyperoxaluria as well as increase renal excretion of calcium and phosphate. Supplementation with aqueous and alcoholic extracts of M. oleifera root – wood significantly- educed that elevated urinaru oxalate, showing a regulatory action on endogenous oxalate synthesis. The increased deposition of stone forming constituents in the kidneys of caculogenic rats was also significantly lowered by curative and preventive treament using aquaeus and alcoholic extracts. The result indicate that the root wood of M. oleifera s endowed with antiurolithiatic activity.
According to Verma et al. (1976), M. Oleifera is a ‘as-growing tree being planted in India on large scale as a potential source of wood for the caper industry. The wood provides a pulp that is considered suitable for paper, wrapping textile and cellophane. In Jamaica, exudate is used for blue dye
MORINGA AS SOURCE OF FOOD
Human consumption of the young leaves are edible and are commonly cooked and eaten like spinach or used to make soup and salads. They are an exceptionally good source of provitamin A, vitamins B, and C, minerals ( in particular iron), and the sulphur-containing amino acids methionine and cystine. The composition of the amino acids in the leaf protein is well balanced. ( Sharma, 2006).The young green pods are very tasty and can be boiled and eaten like green beans. The pods are best for human consumption at the stage when they can be broken easily broken easily with out leaving any visible strings of fiber. These are rich in free leucine. The seeds must first be boiled for a few minutes to remove the fine transparent hull and the drained before they are eaten. Seeds should be eaten green before they change colour to yellow. The hull is not desirable as food because it tastes bitter
INDUSTRIAL USES OF MORINGA OIL
The oil content of de- hulled seed ( kernel) is approximately 42%. The oil is brilliant yellow. It is used as a lubricant for fine machinery such as time pieces because it has little tendency to deteriorate and became rancid and sticky ( F et al.,, 1970; Ramachandran et al., 1980). It is also useful as a vegetable cooking oil. The oil is known for its capacity to absorb and retain volatile substances and is therefore valuable in the perfume industry for stabilising scents. The free fatty acid content varies from 0.5 to 3% (Gombe, 2009).
OILThe seed of M.oleifera contains high quality edible oil( up to 40% by weight). In Haiti, the oil has been used as general culinary and salad oil. It resembles olive oil in its fatty acid composition ( Abdulkarim et al., 2005). The characteristics of M.oleifera seed oil are especially desirable, because of the current trends of replacing polyunsaturated vegetable oils with mono unsaturated fatty acids. The oil is also used as a deteriorating and becoming sticky ( Foidl et al., 2001). Moreover, the oil has the capacity to absorb and retain volatile substance and is therefore valuable in the perfume industry ( Schooners,1992).
MORINGA AS A SOURCE OF BIOGASMoringa plants ( approximately 30 days old ) were milled together with water. The fiber was separated by filtration through a mesh with 5mm pores and the liquid fraction produced was then added to a biogas reactor. With an average feed of 5.7g of volatile solids the gas production was 580 of gas per 1 kg of volatile solids. The average methane content of the gas was 81%.
oil extraction of M oleifera seeds, the left press cake contains water soluble proteins that act as effective coagulants for water purification. One to two seeds per liter are required for water purification. Seed powder are mixed with water, after hours, the water is filtered to get purified water.
The charged protein molecules can serve as non- toxic natural polypeptide to settle mineral particles and organics in the purification of drinking water, vegetable oil depositing juice ( sugarcane) and beer (Foidl et al., 2001). Biological materials have been recognized as cheap substitutes for wastewater treatment. Current studies report that moringa seeds and pots are effective sorbets for removal of heavy metal and volatile organic compounds in the aqueous system (Akhtar et al., 2006; Sharma et al., 2006). It can be added in oxidation lagoons of wastewater treatment units to coagulate algea as well ( ode,et al, 1998). The algea are removed by sedimentation, dried and pulverized, and then are used as protein supplement for livestock ( Foidl et al., 2001).
The unique characteristics of moringa seeds could be a possible solution for the developing countries which are suffering from lack of clean drinking water.Figure 1: scanning electron micrograph ( SEM) of untreated Moringa seeds showing large spherical clusters type morphology.
SEM of As treated Moringa seeds showing dense agglomerated, etched dendrite type morphology ( Kumari et al., 2006).MedicalM. oleifera is a true miracle of nature, obviously because it has so many benefits. In fact, people in India and Africa have known about the medicinal properties of the tree for generations and have thus used it to cure various disease. However the knowledge was mainly considered as alternative science and a herbal remedy.
Modern medical science has only just begun to accept their long held knowledge. Some are even of the opinion that M. oleifera is probably the most nutritious plant ever discovered.
Moringa oleifera is a tropical tree whose numerous economic applications and facility of propagation are arousing growing. International interest. The moringa tree is cultivated to use as a vegetable ( leaves, green, pods, flowers, roasted seeds), for spice ( mainly roots), for cooking and cosmetic oil ( seeds) and as a medicinal plant (all plant organs). Moringa oleifera, medicinal and socio- Economic uses.Further more, the raw seeds are value because extracts have a flocculating protein that works as a coagulant of surface muddy and turbid water to tap- water in many African and Asian countries and central America. Now that research and pilot scale test have been carried out, consideration is being given to the production and use of the moringa’s coagulants at national and international level. In Tanzania, a franco- Swiss company has started large- scale production of moringa seeds to that end. The oil extracted from the seeds is not used as oil for human consumption, and for cosmetic industry. M. oleifera is leaves and cultivated and are eaten as a vegetable
S.M; Long, Lai, O.M., Muhammad, S.K.S; and Gazali, H.M ( 2005). Some physio- chemical properties of moringa oleifera seed oil extracted using solvent and aqueous enzymatic methods. Food chemistry. 93: 253-263.Akhtar, M., Hasany, S. M., Bhanger, and pM.I., Iqbal, S. (2006). Absorption potential of moringa oleifera pods for the removal of organic pollutants from aqueous solution. Journal of hazardous materials. 23: 45-70.Anbarassan, P; Sreeja, K.V; parvatham, A; Vedamuthu, p.G.B. (2001). Our moringa experience. An overview Horti Nursery networks, current science. 45(21): 769-770.Bioteau (1980). Moringa as a source of Biogas, the average methan content of the gas was 81%. Duke, J.A.(1983).Hand book of energy crops.
(sept.2006).Fahey, J.W. (2005). Moringa oleifera: A Review of the medical evidence for its nutritional, therapeutic, and prophylactic properties part 1. Trees for life journal, 1:5.Foidl, N., Makkar, H.P.S and Becker,K.(2001). The potential of moringa oleifera for agricultural and industrial uses. In the miracle tree the multiple attributes of moringa ” ( Ed. LoweLL j Fuglie). CTA. USA.Ferrao, A.M Mendez Ferrao, J.E. (1970). Gordos em also de moringueiro ( Moringa oleifera Lam). Agronomia Angolana. 8, P.316.Gombe, M. ( 2009), uses of Moringa oleifera leaves available at http:/ /, Muhammad Gombe. blogspot. Com/2009/04/many -uses-of-moringa-zogale.HTML.Hartwell, J.L. 1967-1971. Plant used against cancer. A survey. Lioyida 30-34.Odee, D. (1998). Forest biotechnology research in drylands of Kenya the development of moringa species. Dryland Biodiversity 2, 7-8.Scoones, I., melnyk, M. and pretty, J.N. (1992). The Hidden Harvest: Wild foods and Agricultural system: A literature Review and Annotated Bibliography. IIED. Swedish international development Authority and World wide fund for Nature, London and Gland.Sharma, P., Kumari, P., Srivastava, M.M., and Srivastava, S., (2006). Ternary biosorption studies of Cd (II), Cr(III) and Ni (II) on shelled Moringa oleiferaq seeds. Bioresource Technology.Verma, S.C., Banerji, R., Misra, G., and Nigam, S.K. (1976). Nutritional value of Moringa